The northern part of the Lake is a narrow piece of water sitting between the mountains of the Baldo range, the highest peaks of which are over 2000 m.a.s.l. The southern part of the Lake, to the north of the Pianura Padana, is much wider and surrounded by gently rolling hills. The Lake is of typical Glacial formation: 5-6 million years ago the Lake was formed by glacial erosion of a pre-existing depression caused by Alpine rivers. The Lake therefore looks like a huge valley. The vast basin effect of the Lake makes the climate more temperate: less likely to be frosty in the winter and less humid and oppressively hot in the summer. The many winds that blow over the Lake mean that the micro climates and weather conditions change from one place to another. The Lake, especially in the Northern part, is an ideal place to practice many water sports such as sailing, windsurfing and kitesurfing: this is especially due to the presence and regularity of the winds that blow there. At every moment of the day, the Lake offers different, breathtaking views, colours, lights and scents.
The Monte Baldo chain of mountains, stretching for about 40km from north east to south west, has a surface area of approximately 320 km and a height ranging between 65m and the peak of Valdritta at 2218m being it highest point. The two mountainsides lining the lakeshore have very different aspects: that on the western side is steep with cliffs, sheer faces, hidden crags and gulleys and sparse vegetation; the eastern slopes are much less rocky and have more abundant vegetation. If you leave from the lakeside and head towards the top of Monte Baldo you will soon notice the changes in climate and vegetation: lower down there is an evergreen belt next to the Lake with typical Mediterranean plants encouraged by a mild climate – olives, grapes, oleander, citrus plants, lavender; towards 400m asl woods of oak and chestnut begin, followed by, up to 800m, ash trees and pine. Above 1000m beech forests start with many ancient trees visible and this is added to above 1600m by the birch woods. The variety of vegetation on Monte Baldo is the reason why it is often referred to as “the garden of Europe”.